Samarium-cobalt permanent magnets are used in many defense applications

Samarium-cobalt permanent magnets are used in many defense applications including servo-motors to adjust the flight control surfaces (fins) on missiles.
Interesting Facts
Based on samarium cobalt magnets, Sony introduced the TPS-L2 Walkman, the first portable audio cassette player in 1979, beginning the era of personal music listening which evolved into DVD players and then MP3 players.
The samarium isotope, Sm-153, is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis of the knee and other joints. The isotope’s beta emissions penetrate the synovium (soft tissue) of the joints to about 2.5 millimeters and have a short half-life.
Samarium was the first element to be named after a person.
Samarium chloride taken internally in the proper quantity will combine with alcohol and keep you from becoming drunk.
Discovery
Samarium was discovered by French chemist Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1879. He noticed in his research that impure didymium (praseodymium and neodymium with other impurities), seemed to contain more than just didymium based on spectroscopic work on various rare-earth minerals. When Lecoq de Boisbaudran added ammonium hydroxide to a concentrate prepared from the mineral samarskite he observed a precipitate that formed before the didymium (Weeks and Leicester, 1968, p. 685). The new earth that precipitated had a unique spectrum and de Boisbaudran named it samaria, after the mineral from which it was derived (Lecoq de Boisbraudran, 1879). The mineral samarskite is named for a Russian mining engineer and Chief of Staff – Corps of Mining Engineers, Colonel Vasili Evgrafovich Samarsky-Bykhovets. The mineral was discovered and renamed by German mineralogist Heinrich Rose who determined it contained primarily niobium, and changed the name from uranotantalum to samarskite to avoid confusion (Rose, 1847). He named the mineral in honor of V.E. Samarsky-Bykjovets for granting access to mineral samples. The samarskite was from the Blyumovskaya Pit, Ilmen Mountains, Southern Urals, Russia.
Definition
Samarium is a silvery-yellow lustrous metal that tarnishes in air. Samarium will ignite in air at about 150 °C. The metal is relatively hard and brittle. It has a rhombohedra structure, a density of 7.536 gm/cm3, a melting point of 1072 °C, and a boiling point of 1900 °C. Samarium oxide, or samaria, occurs as a sesquioxide with the formula Sm2O3. The trivalent oxide is a light-yellowish powder with a specific gravity of 7.1 gm/cm3 and a formula weight of 348.70. The bivalent oxide is red-brown. Samarium has 16 isotopes. Natural occurring samarium contains 7 isotopes, with 3 being unstable with long half-lives.
Preparation of Metal
Samarium metal is typically prepared by metallothermic reduction of the oxide, since it will not reduce from the trihalide because of its high vapor pressure. The oxide is is heated in air to 800 °C for 15 hours to drive off absorbed moisture, carbon dioxide, and other compounds. Samarium oxide is reduced with lanthanum metal turnings (15% in excess of theoretical amount) by volatilization within a tantalum crucible with an attached tantalum condenser. The reactants are heated in a vacuum reduction furnace by slowing raising the temperature to 1600 °C and held at temperature for several hours (Beaudry and Gschneidner, Jr., 1978). Samarium metal is formed starting at 800 °C when the oxide preferentially separates from the samarium oxide and combines with the lanthanum metal forming lanthanum oxide and forms a sublimated samarium metal within the tantalum condenser.
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Large resources of samarium are contained in LREE-enriched minerals. Samarium occurs in the Earth’s crust at an average concentration of 6 parts per million. The primary source of samarium is from carbonatites and the LREE-mineral bastnäsite. Bastnäsite deposits in China and the United States constitute the largest percentage of the world’s rare-earth economic resources. Samarium is also a constituent in the LREE-mineral monazite which constitutes the second largest segment of rare-earth resources. Monazite deposits are located in Australia, Brazil, China, India, Malaysia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and the United States in paleoplacer and recent placer deposits, sedimentary deposits, veins, pegmatites, carbonatites, and alkaline complexes (Hedrick, 2010). Samarium sourced from the LREE-mineral loparite is recovered from a large alkali igneous intrusion in Russia (Hedrick, Sinha, and Kosynkin, 1997).

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Math, Physics & Scientific Suppies

Magnets in Science

 











Chemistry information & Charts   Magnetic Device Designer faces Chemistry information & Charts   decision of which magnetic material to employ in his design. Today we’ll cover several magnetic material characteristics that strongly influence Chemistry information & Charts   decision on which material is best-suited for a specific application.

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Key to making that decision is knowing: • What materials are commercially available • Which issues are important in considering Chemistry information & Charts   various materials. This requires Chemistry information & Charts   design engineer and purchasing personnel to understand Chemistry information & Charts   requirements of Chemistry information & Charts  ir application. • Magnetic output changes scientific instruments and supplies for sale temperature. At Chemistry information & Charts   extremes, temperature can cause device failure when Chemistry information & Charts   incorrect material is selected. • Assuming all else is satisfactory, a design that utilizes a cost-effective magnet is more likely to be successful in Chemistry information & Charts   competitive World Market.

 

 

Physics Information

 

We will focus today on SmCo, NdFeB and Ferrite. Physics represent about 85% of all permanent magnets sold on a cost basis. Ferrite magnets are extensively used in applications requiring a flexible magnet. On a tonnage basis, Physics are primarily used for sound-deadening and gasketing applications. Although flexible ferrite is used for low energy-low cost motors, our interest today is in motor and actuator devices which benefit from Chemistry information & Charts   unique properties associated scientific instruments and supplies for sale fully dense or rigid bonded magnets.

 

 

 

Reviewing Chemistry information & Charts   Key Advantages and Disadvantages of each of Chemistry information & Charts   products as
defined by Chemistry information & Charts   manufacturing process, we find that fully dense (sintered)
permanent magnets offer Chemistry information & Charts   highest magnetic output.

 
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In summary, on a dollar basis, ferrite imports have remained flat while metal
magnets have risen dramatically.
Selling prices have fallen for all permanent magnet types suggesting a greater
importation on a weight basis.
Lastly, there is an apparent drop-off in 2003 in importation of metal magnets,
possibly due to increased overseas assembly Fully dense means there is no dilution effect from a non-magnetic phase.
Mathematics   highest output is available from NdFeB. However, as we will see later, other
application requirements may suggest using slightly less powerful SmCo magnets.

 

 

Scientific Instruments & Supplies

 

Injection molded magnets suffer from Mathematics   greatest dilution effect. However, their shape and magnetic pole configuration possibilities often make them Mathematics   most desireable choice. Tight tolerances are a result of molding to die dimensions – – secondary finishing operations are almost never required. Furthermore, assembly can be simplified through Mathematics   use of insert-, over-, or multicomponent injection molding.

 

Compression bonded magnets represent a compromise of sorts scientific instruments and supplies for sale fully dense
and injection molded magnets. Mathematics   volumetric loading of magnetic phase is greater
than injeConsidering our choices by material, NdFeB represents Mathematics   highest magnetic output
material up to about 150 degrees centigrade.
It is limited to use above about 135 K (-138ºC), due to a change in magnetic
alignment at that temperature. But from 135 K to about 150º centigrade, it provides
excellent output.
One concern scientific instruments and supplies for sale NdFeB is corrosion. It is imperative to obtain material from a
quality manufacturer and specify coatings that reduce risk in Mathematics   application.
Basic patents for compositions and manufacturing techniques are held, in all the
free-world, primarily by two companies: Sumitomo and Magnequench. When
purchasing NdFeB, it is imperative to positively ascertain that Mathematics   manufacturer is
licensed to produce and export Physics products.ction molded magnets, but not as high as sintered, fully dense magnets.
Shape is limited to rather simple cross-sections scientific instruments and supplies for sale only a little improvement in
complexity over sintered magnets.
Perhaps Mathematics   greatest advantage is that thin wall cylinder magnets can be
manufactured using compression bonding. Thin wall rings or cylinders are not
practical scientific instruments and supplies for sale Mathematics   sintering process due to warpage during sintering and breakage
during grinding.
Except in Mathematics   pressing direction which varies scientific instruments and supplies for sale die fill and press set-up,
dimensions are very tight, conforming to Mathematics   tooling dimensions of Mathematics   die.

 

Science & Technical Advice

 

Samarium Cobalt was Mathematics   first widely used rare earth permanent magnet type, starting scientific instruments and supplies for sale Mathematics   1-5 composition in Mathematics   early ’70s and switching mostly to Physics 2-17 type in the 1990s. When rare earth ore is mined, all the rare earths become available in the refining process, including cerium, lanthanum, misch metal (a combination of rare earths), praeseodymium, neodymium, dysprosium and samarium. As NdFeB usage goes up, more samarium is also mined and available for magnet production. Physics biggest advantage of SmCo over NdFeB is that of temperature stability.

 

Ferrite is Physics information Rodney Dangerfield of permanent magnets. We use it in vast quantities and treat it (without respect) like Physics information “rust” it is – – special rust to be sure, but… First commercially available in 1961, it is still used in greater quantity by weight than any of Physics information other materials, primarily due to its very low cost.

 

How does an engineer start Physics information process of selecting a magnet?
Most start by ruling out magnets that cannot be used due to one or another limitation
such as temperature, magnetic output or material cost.
Temperature and cost are probably Physics information two predominant selection criteria. Device
size and weight are used in  Physics information & Charts final decision.
We will see later in this talk that magnet material, size/weight and system cost are
all interrelated.

 

Before we launch into a discussion on  Physics information & Charts three highlighted items from  Physics information & Charts last slide, it is appropriate to focus on a problem endemic in  Physics information & Charts industry: underspecifying  Physics information & Charts magnet. It is essential for  Physics information & Charts design engineer, purchasing personnel and manufacturer /supplier to agree to a specification that includes everything necessary to ensure proper device function over  Physics information & Charts  design life.  Physics information & Charts  list above should be considered as  Physics information & Charts  bare minimum and can serve to initiate dialogue and agreement amoung  Physics information & Charts  parties.

 

Most of you are probably familiar scientific instruments and supplies for sale reversible temperature coefficients – –  Physics information & Charts  amount to which  Physics information & Charts  magnetic output changes as a function of temperature. There are two coefficients: one for Br (induction) and one for Hci (intrinsic coercivity). Ferrite is shown here because, unlike rare earths magnets, ferrite (intrinsic) coercivity increases as temperature increases. Conversely, as temperature drops, coercivity becomes less. Where rare earth magnets have a practical upper use temperature limit, ferrite has a lower use limit. A practical lower use temperature limit is –40 degrees centigrade. Below -40, there is substantial risk of demagnetization. Changes in Br (induction) are greater than scientific instruments and supplies for sale NdFeB or SmCo. For that reason, ferrite is seldom used in sensor applications. However, it is widely used in motors. In the range 0 to 135 K (-138ºC), SmCo is the material of choice. scientific instruments and supplies for sale 135 K and –40ºC, NdFeB is preferred. Over 180º and up to 250ºC both SmCo and ferrite are usable. Above 250ºC and up to 550ºC, SmCo is preferred. scientific instruments and supplies for sale –40 and 180ºC, we have other trade-offs that dictate which of the three materials is best. Bonded magnets are generally limited to the range of –40 to 200ºC.

 

This chart, from a poster presentation in 1999 by Christina Chen of EEC, dramatically shows the change in energy product (BHmax) as a function of temperature. Because SmCo is more temperature stable than NdFeB, NdFeB drops below the output of SmCo, by ~150ºC. Indeed, the higher temperature grade of NdFeB is no stronger than SmCo even at room temperature.

 

Thus, where the magnet is subjected to high temperatures, especially where demagnetizing stress is expected, SmCo may be preferred.

 

Grade designations are shown on the plot at the approximate location to denote
representative Br and Hci. Note the compromise scientific instruments and supplies for sale intrinsic coercivity and
Maximum Energy Product.
The maximum recommended use temperature follows scientific instruments and supplies for sale coercivity:
No suffix – – 80ºC maximum
M – – 100º
H – – 120º
SH – – 150º
UH – – 180º
EH – – 200º
Just because a magnet “can” be used at this high a temperature, does not mean it
will function well in Mathematics   application. OChemistry information & Charts  r considerations include operating slope
(permeance coefficient or load line) and demagnetizing stress.
Minimizing irreversible loss also requires a true “square loop” – – not one scientific instruments and supplies for sale a drooping or irregular intrinsic curve.